The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) supplies blood to most midline portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. The two anterior cerebral arteries arise from the internal carotid artery and are part of the circle of Willis. The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery.
The anterior cerebral artery is divided into 5 segments.
A1 originates from the internal carotid artery and extends to the anterior communicating artery (AComm). The anteromedial central (medial lenticulostriate) arteries arise from this segment as well as the AComm, which irrigates the caudate nucleus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule
A2 extends from the AComm to the bifurcation forming the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The recurrent artery of Heubner (distal medial striate artery), which irrigates the internal capsule, usually arises at the beginning of this segment near the AComm. Two branches arise from this segment: Orbitofrontal artery (medial frontal basal): Arises a small distance away from the AComm
Frontopolar artery (polar frontal): Arises after the orbitofrontal, close to the curvature of A2 over the corpus callosum. It can also originate from the callosal marginal.
A3, also reffered as pericallosal artery, is one of the (or the only) main terminal branches of the ACA, and extends posteriorly in the pericallosal sulcus to form the internal parietal arteries (superior, inferior) and the precuneal artery. This artery may anastomose with the posterior cerebral artery. Callosal marginal artery: A commonly present terminal branch of the ACA, which bifurcates from the pericallosal artery. This artery in turn branches into the medial frontal arteries (anterior, intermediate, posterior), and the paracentral artery, with the cingulate branches arising throughout its length. Depending on anatomical variation, the callosal marginal artery may be none discrete or not be visible. In the latter case, the branches mentioned will originate from the pericallosal artery. In a study of 76 hemispheres, the artery was present in only 60% of the cases. Angiography studies cite that the vessel can be seen 67%  or 50% of the time.
A4 – A5: Callosal (supracallosal) arteries
The anterior cerebral artery shows considerable variation. In a study made using MRA, the most common variation was an underdeveloped A1 segment (5.6%), followed by the presence of an extra A2 segment (3%). In 2% of cases there was only one A2 segment.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Anterior cerebral artery, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0
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